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#126 30 January 2010 22:25:50

Revs
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Re: Боргиеновые и проборгиеновые (Borhyaenidae & Proborhyaenidae)

Верхний череп возможно сплющен.


- Вы акула пера?
- Нет, я дятел клавиатуры.

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#127 30 January 2010 22:30:41

Crazy Zoologist
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Re: Боргиеновые и проборгиеновые (Borhyaenidae & Proborhyaenidae)

Дырка в верхней челюсти, забыл как она называется, другой формы, диастема первым и вторым премоляром другая, другие скуловые отростки, если учитывать сплющенность.

 

#128 30 January 2010 22:59:10

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Re: Боргиеновые и проборгиеновые (Borhyaenidae & Proborhyaenidae)

Это всё может быть как следствием деформации, так и особенности отрисовки рисовавшего художника. Предглазничное отверстие и ширина диастем могут разниться внитри вида.


- Вы акула пера?
- Нет, я дятел клавиатуры.

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#129 30 January 2010 23:15:36

Crazy Zoologist
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Re: Боргиеновые и проборгиеновые (Borhyaenidae & Proborhyaenidae)

Может быть, кстати у него и клыки длиннее и менее массивны.

 

#130 18 May 2010 23:00:07

Кайл
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Re: Боргиеновые и проборгиеновые (Borhyaenidae & Proborhyaenidae)

 

#131 10 June 2010 12:37:18

Rom
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Re: Боргиеновые и проборгиеновые (Borhyaenidae & Proborhyaenidae)

Borhyaena
http://i076.radikal.ru/1009/2c/027fcc159dcc.jpg

Отредактировано Rom (23 September 2010 19:17:18)


Несу в мир доброе, дохлое, вечное.

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#132 23 July 2010 18:41:25

Crazy Zoologist
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Re: Боргиеновые и проборгиеновые (Borhyaenidae & Proborhyaenidae)

А где можно почитать о боргиене? Более-менее объёмную статью?

 

#133 23 July 2010 19:28:45

Crazy Zoologist
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Re: Боргиеновые и проборгиеновые (Borhyaenidae & Proborhyaenidae)

Кто из спарассодонтов не входит в надсемейство боргиеноидов?

 

#134 23 July 2010 20:42:56

Crazy Zoologist
Гость

Re: Боргиеновые и проборгиеновые (Borhyaenidae & Proborhyaenidae)

Так как инфы мало, то и моя статейка получилась небольшой:

Семейство боргиенид (Borhyaenidae) были распространены в Южной Америке с раннего эоцена по олигоцен. К этому семейству принадлежат крупнейшие сумчатые хищники за всю историю.
Ранее считалось, что проборгиены являются предками боргиенид (Borhyaenidae), однако впоследствии выяснилось, что два этих таксона являются сестринскими, которых объединяют надсемейство боргиеноидов (Borhyaenoidea) и отряд спарассодонтов (Sparassodonta), куда помимо вышеназванных семейств принадлежат родственные им протилациниды (Prothylacinidae) и тилакосмилиды (Thylacosmilidae).
Далее тут: http://crazy-zoologist.livejournal.com/509886.html

 

#135 24 July 2010 03:14:01

Crazy Zoologist
Гость

Re: Боргиеновые и проборгиеновые (Borhyaenidae & Proborhyaenidae)

Назовите мне признаки животных, являющихся метатериями, но не являющихся сумчатыми? И какой ранг теперь у таксона марсупиалиа?

 

#136 24 July 2010 20:22:51

Crazy Zoologist
Гость

Re: Боргиеновые и проборгиеновые (Borhyaenidae & Proborhyaenidae)

Протилацин был в длину около 1,5 метра включая хвост или нет? ПИшут что вес был около 40 кг. Напишите, это важно!

 

#137 24 July 2010 20:54:04

Алекс
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Re: Боргиеновые и проборгиеновые (Borhyaenidae & Proborhyaenidae)

Crazy Zoologist :

Протилацин был в длину около 1,5 метра включая хвост или нет? ПИшут что вес был около 40 кг. Напишите, это важно!

Смотря какой длины хвост ,если 50см ,то реально и 40кг .


" Из говна настоящий бульдог  не получится, а вот силуэт слепить можно ".     "Отрицать прошлое — это отрицать себя "

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#138 24 July 2010 21:50:13

Crazy Zoologist
Гость

Re: Боргиеновые и проборгиеновые (Borhyaenidae & Proborhyaenidae)

Про это не написано. Написано что длина 1,5 метра. Как думаешь это общая длина или не считая хвост?

 

#139 25 July 2010 00:43:27

Алекс
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Re: Боргиеновые и проборгиеновые (Borhyaenidae & Proborhyaenidae)

Crazy Zoologist :

Про это не написано. Написано что длина 1,5 метра. Как думаешь это общая длина или не считая хвост?

Вот точная инфа : PROTHYLACYNUS Ameghino, 1891 [Prothylacocyon Winge, 1923; Napodonictis Ameghino, 1894]

P. patagonicus

череп-22см, высота-27см, длина-78+45см, масса-30кг.


" Из говна настоящий бульдог  не получится, а вот силуэт слепить можно ".     "Отрицать прошлое — это отрицать себя "

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#140 25 July 2010 02:03:47

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Re: Боргиеновые и проборгиеновые (Borhyaenidae & Proborhyaenidae)

Так есть же изображение скелета протилацина.

А вот боргиениды на марках :

http://biostamps.narod.ru/worldlist/turks/turks_1991_pre/turks_1991_pre_03_h200_op.jpg

http://biostamps.narod.ru/worldlist/turks/turks_1991_pre/turks_1991_pre_04_h200_op.jpg


Doctrina multiplex , veritas una !

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#141 25 July 2010 10:54:04

Crazy Zoologist
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Re: Боргиеновые и проборгиеновые (Borhyaenidae & Proborhyaenidae)

http://crazy-zoologist.livejournal.com/511064.html моя статья о протилацине, но надо подкорректировать.

 

#142 25 July 2010 11:22:16

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Re: Боргиеновые и проборгиеновые (Borhyaenidae & Proborhyaenidae)

Интересно, а задние конечности боргиены известны? Откуда "растут ноги" у пальцеходящих "А-ля тилацин" боргиен?


- Вы акула пера?
- Нет, я дятел клавиатуры.

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#143 25 July 2010 11:33:45

Crazy Zoologist
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Re: Боргиеновые и проборгиеновые (Borhyaenidae & Proborhyaenidae)

Тилацин же не боргиена. А задние ноги протилацина известны отчасти:
http://scienceblogs.com/tetrapodzoology/Prothylacinus%20from%20Argot%202003.jpg

 

#144 25 July 2010 11:34:52

Crazy Zoologist
Гость

Re: Боргиеновые и проборгиеновые (Borhyaenidae & Proborhyaenidae)

А вот с передними непонятка, они были стопоходящими или пальцеходящими?

 

#145 25 July 2010 15:00:38

Arctodus-simus
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Re: Боргиеновые и проборгиеновые (Borhyaenidae & Proborhyaenidae)

Crazy Zoologist :

Тилацин же не боргиена. А задние ноги протилацина известны отчасти:
http://scienceblogs.com/tetrapodzoology … 202003.jpg

Странно... Есть прорисовки скелета протилацина целиком.


Doctrina multiplex , veritas una !

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#146 25 July 2010 15:37:04

Crazy Zoologist
Гость

Re: Боргиеновые и проборгиеновые (Borhyaenidae & Proborhyaenidae)

Ну и тут целиком, чёрным помечено то что найдено, а светлым - домыслено.

Передние лапы хорошо известны, но я не пойму они были пальцеходящими или нет. Написано что да.

 

#147 29 July 2010 23:47:14

Crazy Zoologist
Гость

Re: Боргиеновые и проборгиеновые (Borhyaenidae & Proborhyaenidae)

http://scienceblogs.com/tetrapodzoology/necks%20and%20skulls.jpg
By now I hope it's clear, even to novices with no special interest in the extinct wildlife of the Cenozoic, that ancient South America had what we might technically call a Really Awesome Faunal Assemblage. Astrapotheres, sebecosuchians, phorusrhacids, teratorns, gigantic caimans, madtsoiid snakes, sloths, glyptodonts... and this is only half of it, there's so much more. It occurred to me a while back that it would be only fair and proper to cover yet another of South America's extinct Cenozoic groups, and yet again it's a bunch of animals on which comparatively little information is freely available: the borhyaenoids, a long-lived and diverse group of carnivorous marsupials (or are they?). And it's a particularly good time to bring this group to wider attention because, in a series of excellent recent papers, one worker has, almost single-handedly, done the most amazing job of bringing these animals to life...

Borhyaenoids were first recognised during the 1880s when Florentino Ameghino (1854-1911) described a number of Miocene fossils from Patagonia that he grouped together as the Acyonidae Ameghino, 1889. Ameghino thought that these animals descended from opossums and gave rise to canids: as is well known, Ameghino proposed that the similarities present between South American mammals and their Northern Hemisphere counterparts indicated actual evolutionary relationships, rather than convergence (Simpson 1980). Another name that Ameghino coined later on (in 1894) - Borhyaenidae - later came to supersede Acyonidae, and the name we're using for the group here (Borhyaenoidea) is based on that one (Marshall et al. (1978) petitioned the ICZN to suppress Acyonidae, and they also asked that the spelling Borhyaena Ameghino, 1889 be formally recognised over Boryhaena [sic], the name that Ameghino originally used - apparently accidentally - in 1887). Borhyaenoids have also been called sparassodonts (for Sparassodonta Ameghino, 1894), and while this name is used by some recent authors it hasn't been used as much. They've also been called Borhyaeniformes Szalay, 1962 and Borhyaenomorphia Archer, 1984 [image at top, from Argot (2004), shows the diversity of borhyaenoids as represented in skull and neck morphology].

opossum%20with%20unusually%20tall%20legs%20from%20wikipedia.jpg

Most borhyaenoids have been characterised as 'dog-like marsupials', and if any common name is used for the group it's this one. As we'll see, at least some borhyaenoids were superficially dog-like, but others certainly weren't, and if you want to find a more zoologically accurate way of describing these animals it might be to think of them as giant predatory opossums [opossum Didelphis shown here, from wikipedia]. It used to be thought that the dog-like marsupials of Australasia, the thylacines, were close kin of borhyaenoids but anatomical and molecular data shows that this is not the case and that thylacines are part of the exclusively Australasian marsupial clade that includes the dasyures. Borhyaenoids have also been considered allied to the stagodontids, a Cretaceous group of mostly North American omnivores or carnivores (some of which had bulbous teeth that look suited for crushing or breaking hard objects), to the deltatheroidans of Cretaceous Asia, and to the pediomyids of Cretaceous North America.

An extensive literature discusses these various proposals, most of it focusing on detailed characters of the braincase and ear region. Muizon et al. (1997) and Muizon (1999) showed that the stagodontid, deltatheroidan and pediomyid proposals were not supported by good character evidence and argued that borhyaenoids should be united with the opossums (didelphids) and their relatives in the clade Didelphimorphia. It's mostly the way in which the back of the skull is put together that unites these groups.

If borhyaenoids are part of Didelphimorphia, then they're part of the marsupial crown-group and can properly be considered part of Marsupialia. If they're not, then they're outside of the crown-group and would be stem-marsupials, or non-marsupialian metatherians. Note that Metatheria is more inclusive, and that Marsupialia is restricted to the crown-group (e.g., Rougier et al. 1998, Asher et al. 2004). In a large and inclusive analysis of metatherians and other mammals, Rougier et al. (1998) found borhyaenoids and other alleged stem-didelphimorphians to be outside of Marsupialia, and Asher et al. (2004) found a similar result for the supposed basal borhyaenoid Mayulestes.

Pucadelphys%20from%20PMW.jpg

Let's suppose, however, that borhyaenoids are didelphimorphians for a moment. While it might be difficult to imagine that a group of small, superficially rat-like predators are close kin of one of the most spectacular dynasties of big-bodied mammalian macropredators, note that Palaeocene proto-opossums, like Pucadelphys, are really very similar to taxa regarded by some as the most basal of borhyaenoids, like Mayulestes [Pucadelphys shown in adjacent image, from Paleocene Mammals of the World, but original is © MNHN]. The characters that distinguish borhyaenoids from other didelphimorphians are mostly pretty minor little cranial details like absence of prootic canal, the form of the tympanic sinus, and the presence of nasal bones that don't overhang the narial opening, but they are also characterised by specialised shearing teeth (Muizon 1999).

Were borhyaenoids pouched? That's not a dumb question, as pouches have been repeatedly lost within marsupial evolution, and particularly within opossums actually. Articulated borhyaenoid skeletons lack the epipubic bones used in other metatherians to support the pouch, so pouches might have been absent. However, some marsupials (like Thylacinus) that lack ossified epipubic bones have cartilaginous ones, so we can't be that sure.

While people have often made proposals about how certain borhyaenoids lived and hunted, detailed comparative work that analyses the anatomical details of these animals and compares them with those of living carnivorous mammals has generally been lacking. Indeed, harking back to comments I made about the CEE Functional Anatomy meeting, the widely held view that this sort of work is old-fashioned, outdated and redundant ignores the massively under-appreciated fact that, in an absurdly high number of cases, it's never been done at all. Thanks almost entirely to one worker - Christine Argot of the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Paris) - we now have a very robust, incredibly detailed literature on borhyaenoid functional anatomy. Argot's papers contain so much information that I'm only going to be reviewing but a fraction of the areas she covers. Given that lengthy papers on functional anatomy of any type are pretty rare, it cannot be over-emphasised how important studies like this are. What's also of special interest as goes borhyaenoids is that Argot's work has shown how various taxa, repeatedly depicted in the popular and semi-technical literature, seem to have been quite different from their 'conventional' image.

Mayulestes%20from%20Argot%202004.jpg

The most basal reported borhyaenoid is Mayulestes ferox from the Santa Lucía Formation of Tiupampa, Bolivia (Muizon 1994). However, Rougier et al. (1998) didn't find Mayulestes to be part of Borhyaenoidea, and this was followed by Forasiepi et al. (2006). Anyway... Tiupampa has given its name to the Tiupampan Land Mammal Age, a time span dated to the early Palaeocene. A second Tiupampan borhyaenoid, Allqokirus australis, has been regarded as close to Mayulestes and both have been regarded as part of the 'family' Mayulestidae Muizon, 1994, but the fact that Allqokirus is known only from teeth makes this difficult to verify. Mayulestes was weasel-sized and weighed less than 1 kg, and probably less than 500 g. By comparing its pelvis and hindlimb with those of extant marsupials, Argot (2002) showed that this animal had a mobile lumbar region and was agile and well able to climb and move with agility across uneven surfaces. However, the forelimb has features more suggestive of a climbing lifestyle (Argot 2001). It wasn't a cursorial animal, running around in open habitats, nor was it good at leaping, and should probably be imagined as scansorial: as a predominantly terrestrial denizen of cluttered, three-dimensional habitats (like tangled forest floors), but well able to climb [Mayulestes reconstruction from Argot (2004), modified after Muizon. Scale bar = 50 mm].

The Tiupampan fauna includes an assortment of opossums and mioclaenids, and there are also some real oddballs in the fauna, like the pantodont Alcidedorbignya and the opossum-like Szalinia and Jaskhadelphys. It's been hypothesised that Mayulestes preyed on frogs, small marsupials, and the eggs of various crocodilians, turtles and birds (Argot 2004). As the most basal member of Borhyaenoidea, Mayulestes might show us what the ancestral lifestyle and morphology of the group was. However, as we've just seen, there is now doubt as to whether Mayulestes is definitely a borhyaenoid.

The remaining borhyaenoids have been recognised as a clade (which, so far as I know, goes unnamed) united on the basis of braincase details, palatal morphology and an incisor compliment reduced to four uppers and three lowers* (Muizon 1994, 1999). Conventionally, these 'higher borhyaenoids' have been grouped into five 'families': Hathlyacynidae, Prothylacynidae, Proborhyaenidae, Borhyaenidae and Thylacosmilidae. These have also been regarded as 'subfamilies' in those classification schemes where the group here termed Borhyaenoidea has been regarded as a 'family'. Of these groups, hathlyacynids (which differ from other borhyaenoids in possessing a pneumatised squamosal) appear to form the sister-taxon to a clade that includes the remaining taxa (Muizon 1994, 1999).

* The primitive condition for marsupials is five upper incisors and four lowers.

Prothylacinus.jpg

More soon: long-snouted marsupial martens and climbing thylacine-hyaena-binturong hybrids. Regular readers will have noted from the dearth of long articles last week that I was very busy. Shame, given that I missed out on the new Ventastega and bird phylogeny papers. I do what I can, but sometimes there really isn't enough time.

 

#148 30 July 2010 17:26:54

Crazy Zoologist
Гость

Re: Боргиеновые и проборгиеновые (Borhyaenidae & Proborhyaenidae)

Калисто была саблезубой что ли?

 

#149 03 August 2010 03:01:35

Crazy Zoologist
Гость

Re: Боргиеновые и проборгиеновые (Borhyaenidae & Proborhyaenidae)

Arminiheringia (арминигерингия) - род сумчатых млекопитающих (Metatheria) семейства проборгиенид (Proborhyaenidae). Арминигерингия была найдена в нижнеэоценовых залежах Патагонии (Южная Америка). Фрагментарные останки были описаны как Arminiheringia auceta (иллюстрация вверху) (Ameghino, 1902), Arminiheringia contigua и Arminiheringia cultrata (Ameghino, 1902). Однако, вполне возможно, что Arminiheringia cultrata является синонимом Arminiheringia auceta.
К описываемому роду принадлежали одни из самых крупных проборгиенид, однако уступавшие размерами самому крупному проборгиениду - собственно проборгиене (Proborhyaena gigantea).

Продолжение небольшой статейки тут - http://crazy-zoologist.livejournal.com/ … tml#cutid1

 

#150 03 August 2010 14:58:30

Алекс
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Re: Боргиеновые и проборгиеновые (Borhyaenidae & Proborhyaenidae)

Череп   Arminiheringia auceta  с шкалой 5см ,полная длина около 35см.   http://s55.radikal.ru/i147/1008/8c/2b9a0d8dd2bet.jpg


" Из говна настоящий бульдог  не получится, а вот силуэт слепить можно ".     "Отрицать прошлое — это отрицать себя "

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